Initial CSS

It’s a good idea to custom set styles for the elements. However, elements are pre-set to certain puddings and margins . So it’s better to reset them. In your css file:

What are the options we used inside, you can see in my previous post.

CSS box model, Padding, Margin and Box-sizing

In css, all elements are placed in boxes. this is called box model.

Margin refers to the distance between the boxes.

Padding refers to the distance between the content and box edge.

By default, when we set the height and width of the element, the padding is also included. meaning if you have element like this:

the actual size will become 300px by 300px, because additional 100px is added to the content from each side. To prevent this, and set height and width such that padding and border is included, use



How to enable minify on your local maven build

Sometimes you want to minify your js code on your local.

Normally, minify will be enabled on production, but not on local environment. So if you want to update or add new js library, you can test the minify on your local.

Go to pom.xml(the main one, the one in the project folder)

navigate to local profile(the name might be different)  <environment>local</environment>

then change this line <skipMinify>true</skipMinify>

to <skipMinify>false</skipMinify>


Sometimes older browser might not be able to provide support to newer features. So if we want to use unsupported feature(ex.: Object.create() not supported in older IE versions), we must add this support first. Manually adding support is called Polyfill.

To do so, we we must check, if the feature is supported, and if not, then only add it.

In below example, I will add support for Object.create() for IE(or any browser that does not support it).

So, what happens is, we first check if browser support the object create by running (!Object.create) . If browser doesn’t support it, then we go inside the if statement. Then we add create  variable to Object  which will hold the function. Then we check if we are correctly passing the Object that we need to extend (arguments.length > 1) . Then we create new object F(). Then we define F()’s prototype to be o (which is the object we pass inside). Then we return the F(). To sum up above code, the most useful part is F.prototype = 0; . This is how JS extends the features of one object to another. Just like Java’s inheritance.

Then we can use the Object create as usual, even if the browser doesn’t support this feature.



JS Reflexion: see what is inside the object

Sometimes, our code can get very complex because objects might extend the other objects. So it can get very tricky to debug the code. That’s why JS has useful feature called Reflection, which allows us to see what is inside the object.

The above code will sorta extend the john object with user object.  If you run the code below

So, what happens is, JS compiler will go through the Prototype chain, by finding firstname and lastname from John object, then getFullName() from it’s parent object which is Person. Basically, prototype chaining is feature of JS that automatically will search for the Objects fields and methods, if it cannot find it, JS will ascend to it’s parent. Js will continue searching for Objects fields and methods all the way till the Object.  All primitives, funcitons and objects in JS are extended from the Object object.


Below code, shows only the content of the john object



JS: IIFE(Immediately-invoked function expression ) and safe code

Sometimes we need to declare the function and call it immediately. Below code does that, it can also accept the parameter:

So we will see “hello John”. What happens here is that we wrapped the anonymous function inside the (); brackets. This allows to declare the anonymous function. Because JS compiler treats everything inside () as declaration. Then we add function and call it

second () actually invokes the function. The rest is easy we just pass the variable that we need. You can see the first example.

My understanding is that this approach is used in many frameworks.  It also possible to put the execute brackets () outside the function wrapper. Both are ok:

The beauty of the above code is that it’s safe. By that I mean that this code will run inside it’s own execution context and not global one.

So, variable “greetings” will not clash with variables with same name, but from other places in code.

If, however, we want to overwrite some existing global variable we can do it this way:

File 1, has this code:

File 2, has this code:


JS: good practices

  1. Be careful when returning some values


function test(){



cacheable: true;



console.log(test()) ;



// console.log will return undefined, all of this is happening because the js compiler puts ; (semicolon) after the return statement. Therefore, it’s good practice to have curly braces directly after the return statment

ex: return {

cacheable: true;


2. Writing comments

The JS compiler will ignore the white spaces and comments so we can do something like this:


// this is the name of the user


// this is the surname of the user



// this should be always more than 0


JS: storing function inside array and calling that function

We can store function inside the array and call it.


var arr = []; // note this creates array in js

var obk = {} // this creates empty ojbect


var arr = [ “1”,



{ name = “James”,

address = “Mulholland Drive”



var greeting = “hello “;




Now we have different variables inside our array, we even have another array and function!

To call the stored function:

Note: to call the method use arr[4]()

arr[4](arr[3].name);  // this will get the name from the array under index 3 and pass it to the function

// output will be: hello James

JS function parameters: arguments and Spread

Unlike Java, JS will not throw any errors if the way function is declared and called is different. So there are 2 scenarios when developer passes wrong number of parameters. Either too many or too less

If too many:

Ex: function xyz(x, y,z){




// output will be undefined

So, to tackle this potential issue when other developers pass more arguments to a method than it can accept we can use either arguments or spread.


function abc(a, b,c){



// arguments is keyword and will return a,b,c or whatever arguments passed to abc function.

Works a bit similar to this keyword can access it through arguments[n]

Another way is using spread:


function restParam(parameter1, …restArgs){
console.log(restArgs.length); // Logs the number of arguments that do not have a corresponding parameter
console.log(restArgs[2]); // Logs the 3rd argument after the number of arguments that do not have a corresponding parameter

// Log would be as follows
// 4
// 4

// 4 is the number of arguments that do not have a corresponding parameter
// 4 is the 4th 3rd argument after the number of arguments that do not have a corresponding parameter

Second way is preferred, because arguments only return array like collection. The keyword is “like”, so some array methods won’t work. (arguments.length and arguments[n] will still work )

Oh, yeah. In the case if there are less parameters passed

If too less:

just assign the functions parameters to a default variable:

fuction zzz(a, b,c){

a= a || “a”;

b=b || 7;

c = c || 10;